乾隆窑冶古今中外于一炉
Qianlong Kiln: The Agglomeration of Various Artistry and Domestic and Foreign Porcelain
乾隆( 1736—1795 年)是清高宗弘历的年号。乾隆窑产品,主要指唐英督理窑务时的制品。唐英原为内务府员外郎,早在 1728 年(雍正六年)即到景德镇御窑厂“驻厂协理”窑务,担任年希尧的副手。在 1736—1749 年(乾隆元年至十四年)、 1752—1756 年(乾隆十七至二十一年),唐英先后任淮安关、九江关监督,兼理景德镇窑务。唐英不仅一般地管理厂务,完成朝廷交办的大量瓷件,而且深入窑厂,研讨工艺,在仿造和创新上成就显着。每年贡献给朝廷的大小盘、碗、锺、碟、瓶、勰、尊、彝等,多达 57 种。《景德镇陶录》记述唐英的成就说:“公深谙土脉、火性,慎选诸料,所造俱精莹纯全,又仿肖古名窑诸器,无不媲美;仿各种名釉,无不巧合;萃工呈能,无不盛备;又新制洋紫、法青、抹银、彩水墨、洋乌金、珐琅画法、洋彩乌金、黑地白花、黑地描金、天蓝、窑变等釉色器皿。土则白壤,而埴体厚薄惟腻。厂窑至此,集大成矣。”乾隆窑继承了中国古代制瓷工艺的精华,所仿历代名瓷几乎无所不有,同时吸收东、西方艺术,极大地丰富了我国的制瓷工艺,力求新的创造,真可谓集各种技艺之大成,冶古今中外于一炉了。
Qianlong (1736~1795) is an reign name of emperor Gaozong of the Qing Dynasty. The products of Qianlong kiln are mainly made under supervision of Tang Ying (a superintendent of porcelain making). Tang Ying was Wailang (an ancient official title) of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, dispatched to Jingdezhen imperial kiln as Nian Xiyao’s assistant to help manage the kiln affairs. From 1736~1749 (from the 1st year of Qianlong Reign to the 14th year) and 1752~1756 (from the 17th year of Qianlong Reign to the 21st year), Tang Ying successively served as a supervisor at Huai’an Pass, Jiujiang Pass, conducting affairs of Jingdezhen kilns at the same time. Tang Ying not only managed the general kiln affair, making a great number of porcelain ordered by the government, but also went deep into the kiln discussing ceramic craftsmanship and making remarkable achievements on the imitation and innovation. The imperial kiln offers more than 57 kinds of plates, bowls, bells, dishes, bottles, Xie, wine vessels, rituals vessel of various sizes. The achievement of Tang Ying was recorded in the T’ao Lu (a monograph of Jingdezhen’s ceramic history written by Lan Pu) that Tang Ying is so proficient in soil veins and the nature of fire and cautious in choosing raw materials that can make exquisite, bright porcelain which are comparable with ancient porcelain. By imitating all glaze, Tang Ying perfectly made the porcelain in accordance with the original one; He also gathered skilled workmen to develop the possible craftsmanship. At the same time, Tang Ying invented new glaze wares such as yangcai (foreign colors), “fahua” purple, silver ware, colored ink painting, foreign black bronze glaze, enamel painting, black bronze glaze with foreign colors, white design on black ground, gilding on black ground, cerulean blue and furnace transmutation. Qianlong kiln inherited essence of ancient Chinese craftsmanship of porcelain, imitated exquisite porcelain of past dynasties and absorbed Eastern and Western art elements, striving for innovation which greatly enriched the porcelain craftsmanship of China. So it may be called agglomeration of various artistry and domestic and foreign porcelain at all times.